Hearing Care is Health Care

New Clinic Location in Windsor


The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic Announces New Location Opening at 1311 Ouellette Ave

Opening Date: To Be Determined, Late September at the latest

The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic is thrilled to announce the opening of its new location at 1311 Ouellette Ave, Windsor. Owner Doctor of Audiology and Audiologist Bernice McKenzie is eagerly looking forward to providing exceptional care to patients starting in August. This expansion allows us to extend our renowned services to the Windsor community, ensuring that patients receive the same level of care they would at our flagship locations in Amherstburg, Essex, and LaSalle.

With the addition of our Windsor clinic, we are relocating our vestibular equipment from Essex to cater to vertigo patients in the area. This strategic move enables us to enhance our specialized services and offer comprehensive care for individuals experiencing vestibular issues.

At The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic, we remain committed to treating hearing loss under a medical model, emphasizing patient-centric care over technological solutions. Our highly skilled team of experts utilizes the latest advancements in audiology to deliver personalized treatment plans that focus on the individual’s specific needs.

Our diagnostic hearing tests encompass a wide range of evaluations, including computerized cognitive screenings and speech in noise testing. These cutting-edge assessments allow us to provide accurate diagnoses and develop tailored interventions that optimize the patient’s hearing abilities.

We invite everyone to learn more about our services and expertise by visiting our website at www.YouHear.ca. Our website serves as a comprehensive resource, providing valuable information on various hearing and balance disorders, treatment options, and the qualifications of our esteemed staff.

Booking an appointment at The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic is convenient and simple through our website. We encourage individuals in need of audiological services to schedule an appointment and take the first step towards regaining optimal hearing health.

For media inquiries or further information, please contact:

Melissa Kime
Director of Operations The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic
Phone: (519) 961-9285
Email: info@YouHear.ca


About The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic
The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic is a leading audiology practice with multiple locations in Amherstburg, Essex, LaSalle, and now Windsor. Led by Doctor of Audiology  and Audiologist Bernice McKenzie, the clinic prides itself in treating hearing loss and balance disorders under a medical model. With a patient-centric approach, state-of-the-art technology, and a dedicated team, The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic aims to provide exceptional care and improve the quality of life for individuals experiencing hearing and vestibular challenges.

Note to editors: High-resolution images and interviews with owner Bernice McKenzie are available upon request.

Introducing Our Esteemed Speaker: Nashlea Brogan, Doctor of Audiology, Audiologist, Advocate!


We are honoured to present our distinguished speaker, Nashlea Brogan, Doctor of Audiology and Audiologist extraordinaire! With a passion for empowering those with hearing loss, Nashlea has dedicated her illustrious career to improving lives through the latest advancements and tools in Audiology.

As a Cochlear Implant (CI) user herself, Nashlea understands firsthand the challenges that accompany hearing loss and its treatment options. Her personal experiences have fueled her drive to provide patient-centered care that truly makes a difference in the lives of her patients. With a late onset progressive hearing loss, she brings a unique perspective that enhances her ability to empathize and deliver long-term, comprehensive care.

For the past 19 years, Nashlea has been the sole owner of a renowned audiology practice, where she has upheld a steadfast commitment to providing the highest level of progressive care to her patients. Whether she’s offering education, treatment options, or counselling to individuals and families impacted by hearing loss, or leading her professional team, she leaves no stone unturned in her pursuit of making a meaningful impact.

Dr. Brogan’s dedication extends beyond her private practice. She actively engages in advocacy efforts to raise awareness about the far-reaching impact of hearing loss. With her expertise, she sheds light on crucial topics such as cognitive health, mental well-being, and the realities of living with hearing loss. By expanding the dialogue, she strives to create a more inclusive and supportive society.

We are privileged to have Nashlea as our esteemed speaker, sharing her wealth of knowledge and experiences. Prepare to be enlightened as she delves into the profound implications of hearing loss and its broader effects on our lives. Join us for an enlightening session that will leave you inspired and equipped with a deeper understanding of the importance of hearing health.

We’re excited to invite you to this informative event. Join us at Caesars Windsor Casino in the Augustus Ballroom for an enlightening discussion on “Diabetes, Dementia, and Hearing Loss.”

This event aims to shed light on the connections between these three important health factors and how they can impact your overall well-being. It is a must-attend event if you fall into any of the following categories:

1️⃣ If you are over the age of 50

2️⃣ If you have experienced Tinnitus (ringing/buzzing/chirping sounds in the ears)

3️⃣ If your doctor has ever told you that you were diabetic or pre-diabetic

4️⃣ If you have high blood pressure

5️⃣ If you sometimes have difficulty hearing, especially in background noise

6️⃣ If you are retired from a noisy job (examples include teachers, factory workers, police officers, or firemen)

7️⃣ If you forget more than you used to or are having more ‘Senior Moments’

This educational event is designed to provide valuable insights into the correlations between diabetes, dementia, and hearing loss, and how they can impact your life. Don’t miss this opportunity to expand your knowledge and gain a deeper understanding of these crucial topics.

Tickets are required for attendance, so make sure to secure yours in advance to reserve your spot. We can’t wait to see you at this enlightening event!

Exciting Changes at The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic: Expanded Services and Team Members

As a trusted provider of audiology and hearing care services, The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic is committed to delivering the highest quality of care to our valued patients. We are thrilled to announce some significant changes taking place within our organization that will enhance our services and expand our team. These changes will allow us to better serve our patients’ needs and ensure their continued satisfaction. Let’s delve into the details of the exciting developments at our clinic.

1. Audiologist Shaelyn Fritsch: Full-Time at Amherstburg Location
We are delighted to inform our patients that our highly experienced audiologist, Shaelyn Fritsch, will be relocating from our LaSalle location to our Amherstburg clinic. With this move, she will be available to see patients full time at the Amherstburg location. Shaelyn’s experience and dedication to patient care make her an invaluable addition to our team in Amherstburg.

2. Hearing Instrument Specialist Celina Postlethwaite: Flexible Schedule in Amherstburg and LaSalle
To provide our patients with even more convenience, our skilled Hearing Instrument Specialist, Celina Postlethwaite, will be working across both our Amherstburg and LaSalle locations. Celina will be available in Amherstburg on Mondays and Fridays, while she will be attending to patients in LaSalle on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays. This scheduling flexibility ensures that our patients can access Celina’s expertise at their preferred location.

3. Melissa, Newly Graduated Hearing Instrument Dispenser: Windsor Location
We are excited to welcome Melissa into a new role, a newly graduated hearing instrument dispenser. Melissa will be transitioning from our Essex location and will now be serving patients at our new Windsor clinic. Her dedication and passion for providing exceptional care make her an excellent addition to our team. Patients in Windsor can now benefit from Melissa’s expertise and personalized service.

4. Introducing Audiologist Ridaa Nasir: Essex and Windsor Locations
We are pleased to introduce our newest team member, Audiologist Ridaa Nasir. Ridaa will be working at our Essex location on Mondays and Fridays, ensuring patients in that area receive the highest level of audiological care. Additionally, Ridaa will be available in our Windsor clinic throughout the rest of the week. Ridaa’s knowledge and commitment to patient well-being further strengthen our team’s capabilities.

At The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic, we continuously strive to provide exceptional care and tailored solutions to our patients. These changes, including the relocation of Shaelyn Fritsch, expanded services from Celina Postlethwaite, the addition of Melissa to our Windsor clinic, the arrival of Ridaa Nasir, and the continued support from Sandra DeKok, are aimed at enhancing our ability to meet our patients’ diverse needs across different locations. We look forward to providing the same exceptional care our patients have come to expect, now with an even stronger team and expanded services.

Retail Model vs. Medical Model: Understanding the Difference in Hearing Care!

When it comes to addressing hearing loss, it’s essential to recognize the contrasting approaches offered by retail and medical model clinics. The disparity lies not only in the business structure but also in the level of comprehensive care and patient-centered focus. Let’s dive into the key distinctions and why choosing a medical model clinic can make a significant difference in your overall hearing health.

Retail locations often operate under the influence of hearing aid manufacturers, either directly or indirectly. Their primary goal is to sell as many hearing aids as possible. While hearing aids can undoubtedly be life-changing devices, it’s crucial to consider the impartiality of the recommendations provided in a retail setting. On the other hand, medical model clinics, like ours, are local and independently owned, with no affiliation to any specific hearing aid manufacturer. This allows us to prescribe the best solutions for our patients in an unbiased and personalized manner.

One of the significant disparities between retail and medical model clinics lies in their objectives. Retail clinics prioritize maximizing hearing aid sales, often utilizing tactics such as offering “free hearing tests” to attract customers. However, medical model clinics focus on the comprehensive assessment and treatment of hearing loss, recognizing that a thorough evaluation requires time and expertise, which comes with associated costs. By investing in a medical model clinic, you are receiving a higher standard of care, personalized recommendations, and a commitment to your overall well-being.

Moreover, retail locations tend to limit their scope to adults with straightforward cases of hearing loss, aiming for quick and straightforward transactions. In contrast, medical model clinics, like ours, embrace a patient-centered approach that extends beyond age and simple diagnoses. We provide care for patients from birth, offer specialized services for tinnitus management, and work with individuals concerned about their dizziness or balance. Our commitment to serving a wide range of patients underscores our dedication to comprehensive hearing care.

Another crucial aspect to consider is the compensation structure within each model. Retail clinics commonly operate on a commission-based system, where salespeople receive incentives for selling specific hearing aid brands. This may introduce bias and influence the recommendations provided to patients. In contrast, medical model clinics, like ours, do not offer commissions. We prioritize ethical practices and patient-centered care, ensuring that our recommendations are solely based on your individual needs and the best solutions available.

Furthermore, medical model clinics recognize the intricate relationship between hearing and cognitive health. We understand that addressing hearing loss goes beyond restoring auditory abilities; it involves assessing and supporting your cognitive well-being. Therefore, medical model clinics often incorporate cognitive screenings as part of their comprehensive evaluations. This holistic approach ensures that your overall cognitive health is considered and addressed alongside your hearing concerns.

Aural rehabilitation is another vital component of the medical model. While retail clinics tend to focus solely on the sale of hearing aids, medical model clinics understand that treatment extends beyond the device itself. We offer aural rehabilitation programs that encompass counseling, communication strategies, and ongoing support. This comprehensive approach empowers patients to adapt to their improved hearing, maximize their communication abilities, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Choosing a medical model clinic means investing in your long-term hearing health and overall well-being. By selecting a local, independent clinic with no affiliation to specific hearing aid manufacturers, you can be confident in receiving unbiased recommendations, patient-centered care, and access to a comprehensive range of services. Prioritizing your hearing health is an investment worth making, and with a medical model clinic, you are truly getting what you pay for – exceptional care tailored to your individual needs.

The Value of Our Services: Understanding Our Billing Policy!

At The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic, we strive to provide exceptional care and a comprehensive range of services tailored to the individual needs of our patients. We understand that our billing policy may raise questions, so let’s shed light on why we charge for appointments and how it aligns with our commitment to quality care.

First and foremost, it’s important to note that our services are not covered under OHIP (Ontario Health Insurance Plan). As an independent clinic following a medical model, we prioritize the health and well-being of our patients. While we understand that healthcare accessibility is a concern, it’s essential to clarify our perspective on this matter.

While some third-party insurance plans, such as GreenShield, may provide coverage for our services, it is crucial to check the specifics of your individual plan for details. We encourage our patients to explore insurance options that can help alleviate the financial burden. We are always here to assist and provide the necessary documentation for insurance claims.

As an audiology clinic that is not directly or indirectly owned by a hearing aid manufacturer, we prescribe solutions based solely on the needs of our patients. Our recommendations are unbiased and guided by our knowledge and commitment to finding the most suitable hearing solutions for each individual.

One aspect that sets us apart is our continuous commitment to improvement. We invest in new services and acquire cutting-edge equipment to ensure we deliver the highest standard of care. As the only audiology clinic offering services such as paediatric testing, dizzy patient evaluations, and comprehensive tinnitus management, we take pride in expanding our capabilities to address diverse needs.

The decision to charge for our services is rooted in our desire to maintain fairness and sustainability. By billing for appointments, we can provide equitable care to all our patients. It ensures that those who choose not to treat their hearing loss contribute their fair share, rather than burdening others who seek treatment. Ultimately, we are a business, and maintaining fairness and balance is crucial for us to continue providing exceptional care.

We understand that discussions around healthcare costs can be sensitive, and we are always open to hearing your concerns and addressing them to the best of our abilities. Our goal is to deliver top-notch care, support, and education while navigating the complexities of the audiology landscape. Your satisfaction and well-being are at the forefront of everything we do.

Thank you for entrusting us with your hearing health. We are here to serve you and guide you on your journey towards improved hearing and a better quality of life. If you have any questions or would like further clarification, please don’t hesitate to reach out to our team. We are here to support you every step of the way!

Cookies and Cleanings Event

We all love cookies, and we all love “free”. Come on in for a free cookie and we will clean your hearing aids for you while you wait. This delicious event will occur between the hours of 10am and 3pm:

Friday February 2, 2023 at our LaSalle location

Saturday February 3, 2023 at our Essex location

Monday February 6, 2023 at our Amherstburg location


Bernice wrote a book!!!

You may not see me in the clinic as often as you would like, but I’ve been pretty busy:

I got married
I had a son
I co-authored a book

Yes, I co-authored a book. We are in the final stages and hope it will be available by summer 2023. I don’t want to release too many details, but rest assured I will let you know when it hits bookshelves. In the meantime, I want to introduce you to my brilliant co-author, Dr. Keith N. Darrow. Dr. Darrow is an expert in Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology with a doctoral degree from the joint Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T) and Harvard Medical School program. He is a former Clinical Professor at Northeastern University (Boston, MA) and is currently a tenured professor at Worcester State University.

Dr. Darrow’s clinical experience is vast and includes a clinical fel- lowship at the Department of Otolaryngology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (Boston, MA) and a trainingship at the Audiology De- partment in the East Orange (New Jersey) Veterans Association Hospital. He is the owner of the Hearing and Balance Centers of New England and founder of the Healthy Hearing Foundation of New England, as well as a board member of the Sound of Life Foundation (both non-profit organizations dedicated to providing education and hearing health care for those in need). He was recently named the Director of Audiology Research at Intermountain Audiology and has chosen to lead the Excellence In Audiology movement across the country.

Dr. Darrow is a nationally recognized speaker, trainer, and researcher and has been conducting research at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary for over fifteen years. His publications and research have been cited over 550 times.

Below is a video of Dr. Darrow that I hope you will enjoy.

Mask Mandate Continues at our Clinics

As of June 11, 2022 we will still continue to require everyone who enters our clinics to wear a medical grade mask. We are unable to maintain social distancing while providing effective care.

• A medical grade mask will be provided at the clinic entrance if you do not have a mask with you.
• Those who refuse to properly wear a mask will not be permitted entry.
• Respirators, or masks with valves, and cloth masks are not permitted.
• Speak with us if you have a medical condition that prevents you from wearing a mask, we will work with you to accommodate your needs.


At Home Epley

In these novel times of “patient self treatment”,  I have seen a stark and dramatic upswing of patients doing “At Home Epley maneuvers”.  From your online “google” research you have learned that the Epley maneuver is an exercise of sorts that involves manipulating and maintaining the head in certain positions to move the calcium deposits out of the semicircular canals and back into the parts of the ear to which they belong. The Epley maneuver is indicated for clients who have been diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Not everyone who is dizzy has BPPV.

Is The Epley maneuver for everyone? Unfortunately it is not a vestibular cure-all. 

Questions you should ask yourself:

  1. “How long do your symptoms last?” If longer than a few seconds, this is generally not a condition that can be helped with The Epley. Likewise, if you have had these symptoms for years, this is not BPPV.
  2. “Do you have any other symptoms in your ears?” Ringing, buzzing, pain, aural fullness, discharge, changes in hearing, and of course dizziness or vertigo are all conditions which would warrant a referral to an audiologist (not a hearing aid clinic, there is a difference). 
  3. Which ear is affected? Performing the Epley is quite specific. Head at 30° is just that. Very few people know when their head is at 30° of their own avail. Doing the Epley incorrectly makes it far more likely to be not only unsuccessful, but detrimental. Similarly, which canal is affected? Is this a canal that The Epley could serve? Do you need the Semont? The Brandt-Daroff? The BBQ roll? The GRM? 
  4. Is there a confirmed positive Dix Hallpike with nystagmus? Is the nystagmus upbeating or sidebeating? Is it rotational in nature? 
  5. Has a carotid artery screening been performed? This can be extremely unnerving and dangerous to uncover while performing the Epley Maneuver on yourself. 
  6. Have you googled “drop attack”? Tumarkin’s otolithic crisis can occur post-Epley and is quite terrifying. 

It is important to know that it is not safe to use YouTube as a resource.There are currently over 3,300 videos available on YouTube related to performing the Epley maneuver. Out of these videos, only 21 were rated as accurate by a group of neuro-otologists.* Credible YouTube videos were produced from organizations like the American Academy of Neurology. 

The point this post: DO NOT DO THE EPLEY ON YOURSELF.

*A prescription for the Epley maneuver: www.youtube.com?

Kevin A. Kerber, James F. Burke, Lesli E. Skolarus, Brian C. Callaghan, Terry D. Fife, Robert W. Baloh, A. Mark Fendrick, Neurology Jul 2012, 79 (4) 376-380; DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182604533


Wax Removal: Earigator

We are always searching to add new services to our clinic. We’ve always offered wax removal, but now we offer what many are calling the “spa” version of ear wax removal. All three clinic locations now use the Earigator system to remove stubborn wax from your ears.

We offer all three methods of wax removal. The Earigator has changed how we remove wax from our patients ears. We can now remove wax during one visit, when in the past some patients had to return multiple times in order for us to get all the wax out.

We can complete wax removal at all four clinic locations.

Watch the video below to “see” the Earigator in action.


One sign of sudden sensorineural hearing loss could be the loss of at least 30dB of hearing in three connected frequencies within a 72 hour period.


Everyone’s hearing naturally declines with age, and people often have one ear that hears better than the other. If hearing loss appears suddenly in one ear for no apparent reason, you may have experienced a sudden sensorineural hearing loss, a kind of nerve deafness.

Those who experience sudden sensorineural hearing loss generally discover hearing loss when waking up in the morning. Others might notice when they try to use the deafened ear, such as using a phone. Many note a loud “POP” just before they lose their hearing. People with sudden deafness can also experience one or more of these symptoms: dizziness, feeling of ear full­ness, ringing or buzzing in the ears (tinnitus).

If caught in time, sudden sensorineural hearing loss can be treated and corrected by an ear, nose and throat surgeon. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss symptoms should be seen as a medical emergency. Prompt treatment significantly increases the chance that at least some hearing can be recovered.

It is estimated that sudden sensorineural hearing loss affects between one and six people per 5,000 every year, but the actual number of new cases can be much higher, due to the fact that it often goes misdiagnosed­. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss can affect people of all ages, but is most com­monly seen in adults in their early 40s and 50s.


Diagnosing Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Ruling out conductive hearing loss, or hearing loss due to an obstruction such as fluid or wax in the ear is a good place to start. For sudden hearing loss without any clear cause upon examination, you should be referred to an ear, nose and throat surgeon and audiologist right away.

The ear, nose and throat surgeon can medically treat the condition at hand.

The audiologist will determine if the hearing loss is conductive or sensorineural with a diagnostic hearing test. Additional testing completed by the audiologist may include: (1) Tympanogram, (2) Acoustic reflexes, 3) Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and/or (4) Auditory brainstem response (ABR). The information gathered by the audiologist will help guide the ear, nose and throat surgeons’ treatment plan.


What Causes Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss?

(1) Viral infections. One in four patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss reports suffering from an upper respiratory infection within a month before the hearing loss. What virus caus­es sudden hearing loss? Viruses associated with sudden hearing loss include mumps, measles, rubella, as well as meningitis, syphilis and AIDS, among many others.

(2) Tumors. A variety of tumors in the ear, benign as well as malignant, may cause sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

(3) Head trauma affecting hair cells, eardrum or bones. Par­tial or total recovery from head injury induced hearing loss can be expected.

(4) Drugs and insecticides. Erectile dysfunction medications, a long list of prescription drugs and chronic abuse of painkillers may cause sudden hear­ing loss. Insecticides such as malathion and methoxy­chlor have been associated with sudden hearing loss in both ears (binaural sudden sensorineural hearing loss).

(5) Immunological disorders.

(6) Vascular disorders disrupting blood flow to the ear.

(7) Developmental abnormalities.

(8) Idiopathic disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Meniere’s disease and others.


Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss Treatment

The most common treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss, especially when the cause is unknown, is corticosteroids administered by an ear, nose and throat surgeon. Steroids can treat many disorders and usually work by reducing inflam­mation, decreasing swelling, and helping the body fight illness. Additional treatments may be needed if you discover an underlying cause of your sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

It is very common for virally induced sudden hearing loss to be misdiagnosed as a middle ear infection. As a result, the typical treatments of middle ear infection, usually caused by bacteria, do not affect the virus actually causing the problem.





Hearing loss in both ears Frequently Rarely
Pain Frequently Never
Pressure in ears Frequently Sometimes
Dizziness, tinnitus or vertigo Rarely Frequently
Onset Gradual Sudden
Appearance of eardrum Fluid behind eardrum or

it looks opaque

Appears normal
Drainage Sometimes Never
Usual treatments Antibiotics Trans-tympanic steroid injection
Misdiagnosis leads to Spread of infection to other parts of the head Permanent hearing loss

How Often Should You Have Your Hearing Tested By An Audiologist

Most people are accustomed to making regular health checkups a routine part of their medical care. Annual physicals, dental exams, and vision tests are all commonplace; however, few individuals pay as much attention to their hearing. How often you have your hearing tested depends on a few factors, one being age.

  • Childhood: Newborn hearing screenings are essential, of course, and regular checkups throughout childhood are commonplace. Children should have their hearing tested prior to starting kindergarten, before starting any speech therapy plan or if there are any educational concerns.
  • Adulthood: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association’s (ASHA) guidelines state that healthy adults ages 18-40 years old, who are not experiencing any noticeable hearing loss, should have their hearing tested every three to five years.

We recommend more frequent diagnostic hearing testing for any of the following individuals:

  • People over the age of 60: Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss. Annual hearing tests are recommended for all adults beginning at the age of 60, regardless of whether or not they are experiencing symptoms. As we age, cumulative damage to the hair cells in the inner ear becomes more prevalent, affecting the ability to understand high frequencies. One out of three adult’s experiences presbycusis by the age of 65; that number increases to one out of two by the age of 75.
  • People who are exposed to loud noises: Noise-induced hearing loss is almost as common as presbycusis, and affects individuals of all ages. Those who are frequently exposed to loud noises have a higher risk of suffering permanent damage to their hearing. These individuals should have their hearing tested once a year. Noise-induced hearing loss affects:
    • People who work in noisy environments (construction or factory workers, dentists, musicians, firemen and teachers),
    • People who regularly participate in noisy activities (concerts, hunting, riding motorcycles), or
    • People who are employed in professions where sudden loud noises are common (law enforcement and the military)
  • People with hearing loss: This might seem counterproductive, but even if you have been diagnosed with hearing loss and wear hearing aids, it is more important than ever to have your hearing tested on a regular basis. Your hearing may continue to change over time, it is important that your hearing aids are properly programmed to ensure you are receiving the maximum benefit. These individuals should have their hearing tested once a year.
  • Diabetics: If you have a health concern such as diabetes it is important to have your hearing tested annually. Over time, blood sugar levels that are too high or too low can damage nerves that affect your hearing in the same manner that they affect your vision. These individuals should have their hearing tested once a year.
  • Cancer patients: If you are battling cancer and having chemotherapy treatments and/or taking ototoxic drugs you should have a baseline test immediately and hearing tests done every couple of months to make sure there is not a severe hearing degradation during your treatment.
  • Vertigo: A hearing test should always be part of your dizziness workup. Certain conditions show up on the audiometric graph which will lead to possible earlier diagnosis of the condition responsible for your vertigo.
  • Tinnitus: Anyone suffering from ringing or noises in their ear should have their hearing tested right away. Tinnitus is the first symptom of many audiological disorders. Although there is no cure for tinnitus, there are several ways that we can manage this condition. These individuals should have their hearing tested once a year.
  • Sudden Hearing Loss: If you notice a sudden change or decrease in your hearing, you should promptly have your hearing tested. Often these losses are sensorineural hearing losses that are misdiagnosed as nasal or sinus conditions. Time is of the essence if we want to save your hearing. A diagnostic hearing test will determine the appropriate course of treatment.

Resolve to Treat Your Hearing Loss in 2022

The new year is quickly approaching and with it comes the hope for a better start! For many, relationships are restored, projects are completed, gym memberships are purchased, and resolutions are made for the coming year. People have a genuine desire to live a better year than the previous one. Unfortunately, they often overlook a very important part of their health—their hearing. 

According to Atlanta Hearing Associates, only 20 percent of people with hearing loss seek out treatment, and the people who do seek treatment will wait between 5 to 7 years before receiving a hearing test. This resistance to treatment means that hundreds of people are suffering year after year. They are missing the joys of effortless hearing and depriving their brain of the audible stimulus it needs to stay functioning and alert. 

Reasons Hearing Loss Remains Untreated

People refuse or postpone treatment for their hearing loss for several reasons. The most common reasons are the following:

  • Hearing loss is gradual — Typically, people do not wake up one day and notice a large decrease in their hearing ability (unless they received an injury). Most often, hearing loss happens so slowly over time that my patient’s do not even notice the change. 
  • Hearing loss is partial — Hearing loss may affect only high-frequency sounds while low frequencies remain the same. A person with partial hearing may assume that the people around him are mumbling. 
  • Hearing loss is invisible — Hearing loss is typically painless; and, unlike a bruise, it leaves no physical mark. Problems that can’t be seen are often viewed as small threats that can be ignored. 
  • Hearing loss is easily compensated — To some people, hearing loss isn’t a problem that necessitates immediate action. Instead of addressing the problem, people compensate by turning up the television volume and asking people to repeat themselves. Although these actions might postpone treatment, they are far from valid solutions. 

Beyond these, another reason that some people postpone treatment is that they have been miseducated about their hearing situation. People may struggle to hear only in noisy environments and suspect (or are told) that their hearing is normal. However, this problem may be caused by an auditory processing disorder.

Overcoming Barriers and Seeking Treatment

There is never a wrong time to acknowledge your hearing loss and seek treatment. The following are three ways you can overcome your resistance and start on the path toward better hearing.

  • Acknowledge your hearing loss — Hearing loss is common. Approximately 1 in every 5 people will develop a form of hearing loss in their lifetimes. Acknowledging the problem is the first step toward treatment. Do you have a loved one who is resistant to scheduling a hearing test? Offer to go in with them and get your hearing tested too!
  • Have your hearing tested — Not sure who to contact first? Give us a call and we can help you figure out who you need to contact first before your first scheduled visit! A hearing test at The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic will identify what is affecting your hearing and whether amplification is needed. I have some couples who come in together to get their hearing tested. This usually helps those who are resistant to getting help.
  • Consider hearing aids — At The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic we can educate you about the latest hearing aid devices and their capabilities. We pride ourselves on giving a thorough explanation as well as demonstrate what a hearing aid will sound like!


Find Treatment Today

Don’t let another year pass you by as you struggle with untreated hearing loss. Overcome your barriers and seek treatment today! If you are experiencing hearing loss call one of our offices to book an appointment, or you can book an appointment online by clicking here.. We are more than happy to assist you as you resolve to make this year the best one for you and your hearing. 


“Hearing Loss: Overcoming The Barriers To Treatment.” Atlanta Hearing Associates. HearAtlanta.com. Published April 28, 2016. Accessed December 6, 2021. https://www.hearatlanta.com/hearing-loss-articles/hearing-loss-overcoming-barriers-treatment/.

Hearing Loss and Relationships


“He thinks I’m yelling, but I’m not. I’m trying to speak louder so he can hear me. But after raising my voice and repeating myself multiple times, he thinks I’m aggressive and mad. Upset, he asks me why I’m being so short with him. I just want to be heard, but, sometimes, saying nothing would be much easier.” 

Ahhh, the joys of relationships! Quite often, I see the highs and lows of relationships in our clinic—the agitated spouse bringing in her loved one for a hearing test or the concerned child motivating his parents to finally discuss getting hearing aids. 

However, I also see the joys of restored communication. When patients are fit with hearing aids, their perspective changes. They finally understand how impeding their untreated hearing loss was. I witness nervous patients rediscover their independence once they no longer need to rely on family members to repeat themselves.



Communication is a vital part of our everyday lives. We interact with people all day: working, parenting, traveling, gathering with family/friends, and running errands. Hearing loss can present challenges when conversing, particularly with strangers or when the location has poor acoustics. Life does not slow down for someone with hearing loss. Often, we see these individuals attempting compensation strategies to get by, such as lip reading or using their loved ones as mediators. 

Researchers have evaluated the relationship dynamic between people with hearing loss and their loved ones. Their studies demonstrate that hearing loss produces feelings of frustration, embarrassment, and distress. Partners of those with hearing loss often feel forced to involve their partners in social gatherings and to avoid embarrassing scenarios by smoothing social interactions. This voluntary responsibility can lead to significant stress and strain in the relationship. While one partner is trying to enjoy himself socially, he must also repeat words and phrases back to his hearing-impaired partner. 

I hear stories of patients struggling to have conversations even in their own homes. A spouse wonders why the other can’t hear his question while the dishwasher is rumbling and the TV is blaring. He raises his voice, thinking this will solve the dilemma. However, noticing his tone, his spouse feels attacked and accuses him of “shouting and yelling.”

When communication breakdowns occur, both sides feel annoyed, resentful, and irritated. The good news is that help is available!



Communication strategies can go a LONG way, even for someone without hearing loss! Just because your loved ones are fit with hearing aids doesn’t mean they are now able to communicate from rooms away. To optimize conversation and reduce communication breakdowns, consider some of the following tips for talking with your family:


  •     Get their attention (say their names) prior to asking a question or talking.
  •     Communicate face to face (visual cues help everyone!).
  •     Speak slowly and clearly.
  •     Try using different words.
  •     Have patience.



  •     Shout or scream.
  •     Speak rapidly.
  •     Turn your face away or communicate from a different room.
  •     Repeat the same phrase louder each time.
  •     Get frustrated and say, “Nevermind! Forget it.”



“Hearing loss very often is such a gradual phenomenon that the person is in denial. You really have to be patient with them in getting them to come forward to get help.”

      — Marion Ross 

Communication is key to maintaining a healthy relationship. If you or your loved one is reluctant to apply these tips, consider educating yourself on the influence hearing loss can have. Also, share your feelings with your partner. Hearing loss isn’t “their problem.” It is a roadblock in your relationship that is affecting both of you and one that you must overcome together. 

The good news is that there are plenty of tools and technology for individuals with hearing loss to use to improve their communication and quality of life. One of the most important contributors to successful hearing aid use is support from loved ones

We want you to hear your best for yourself and for the people who mean the most to you. At The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic, our job is to walk you through your hearing loss and provide treatment options. Please contact us if you or your loved ones are experiencing hearing loss. Everyone deserves a chance to hear better.



Morgan-Jones RA. Hearing Differently: The Impact of Hearing Impairment on Family Life. London and Philadelphia: Whurr Publishers: 2001. 

Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine, and Hans Henrik Philipsen. “Hearing Loss as A Social Problem: A Study of Hearing-Impaired Spouses and Their Hearing Partners.” The Hearing Review (2019).


Hear For The Holidays 2021

Affecting 1 in 8 people in North-America, hearing loss impacts almost every family with at least one person around the dinner table struggling to engage in conversations, missing the punchline of the joke and feeling isolated when they should be at their happiest. Whether the reason they haven’t treated their hearing loss is due to financial means or whether they’re refusing to accept that they may have some level of hearing loss, we are here as hearing healthcare providers to help.

That’s why, this holiday season, The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic wants to help by gifting one person a free pair of hearing aids.

Individuals can nominate their loved one by sharing their story by submitting an essay or completing our online form (click here for form). On November 26th, nominations will close and a winner will be selected. The winner will then be fit with advanced hearing aid technology to ensure they have the Christmas that they deserve.

Please help The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic strive to help someone enjoy the laughter of family, the voices of their grandchildren and the music of the season by giving them the gift of better hearing.

Stock Sale 2021

From time to time, hearing aid companies will have sales. We purchased stock from several different hearing aid companies and are passing the savings to our patients. Below is a list of what we have on sale, the government ADP grant has already been deducted from the prices listed below. There is no end date to the sale, once the stock is gone the sale is done. Sale is for private pay patients only (no third parties such as WSIB, ODSP, VAC etc…) 




Model  Regular Price  Sale Price 
More 1 miniRITE Rechargeable 



More 2 miniRITE Rechargeable 







Model  Regular Price  Sale Price 
Moment 440 Rechargeable 



Moment 330 Rechargeable 







Model  Regular Price  Sale Price 
Active Pro 



Pure Charge & Go 7X 



Pure Charge and Go 5X 



Silk 7X 



Silk 5 X 



Styletto 7X 



Styletto 5X 







Model  Regular Price  Sale Price 
Discover X Jump 9 



Discover X Move 9 Rechargeable 



Discover X Move 7 Rechargeable 





In addition to the stock sale, Stakey is running a sale on their Livio Edge AI2400. There is a behind the ear and a custom rechargeable in the ear model on sale for $6000.00 for the set.  



Alzheimer’s and Brain Awareness Month 2021


“I used to worry about my dad. I live out of state and call home weekly. On the phone, Dad didn’t seem like himself. He was aloof and sometimes unresponsive. I used to worry that he wasn’t following me on the phone or participating at family gatherings because of memory loss, dementia, or something else. But surely enough, once he could hear well, he was back to his old self. He smiled, laughed, and engaged in conversation just like he used to. Hearing aids were a game changer. They literally brought him back to life.”


During hearing aid consultations, family members often express concerns about hearing loss and the implications it can have on cognition and/or dementia. When individuals aren’t able to hear properly, they may seem disengaged, unresponsive, or they may respond inappropriately. Whether these changes in behavior result from hearing problems or reduced brain function is sometimes difficult to determine.


Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in the aging community. The prevalence of hearing loss increases with age, affecting 40% of people over 50 years old and roughly 71% of people over 70 years old. Untreated hearing loss can lead to difficulties when communicating and laxed participation in normal daily activities and social engagements. Withdrawal from these activities can ultimately lead to isolation, loneliness, and cognitive decline. 


Hearing loss has been identified as potentially the most modifiable risk factor for dementia. One study found that age-related hearing loss is associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline and an increased risk of developing dementia. In addition, the likelihood for developing dementia increases with the severity of the hearing loss (Slade 2020). 




So where exactly does hearing breakdown begin? The most common form of hearing loss seen in the aging community is formally known as “sensorineural” hearing loss. This hearing loss is either “sensory” or “neural” in nature. Sensory indicates that the hearing loss is caused by damage to the small sensory hair cells that are housed in the cochlea, the organ of hearing. The “neural” portion refers to the neurons that send the auditory message along the hearing nerve to the brain. 


When the cochlea is not functioning properly, it is less effective at decoding and relaying signals to the hearing nerves. This compromised signal results in diminished neural activity. Both sensory and neural changes disrupt the brain’s ability to comprehend speech properly. This lack of input and change over time can alter how the brain allocates its resources. Think of the saying, “If you don’t use it, you’ll lose it!” I often explain to my patients that hearing is not just an “ear” thing, it’s an “ear-to-brain” connection!  




As we age, connections between brain cells can become lost or damaged. This disconnection is often referred to as cognitive decline. Research in hearing loss and cognitive decline has gained significant momentum over the past few years. Many studies continue to investigate the correlations and causal relationships between hearing loss and dementia. However, such study proves challenging since the brain and auditory systems are both quite complex. Even so, researchers have discovered evidence suggesting that changes are taking place at the level of the brain when hearing loss is present, particularly in the aging population (Slade et al. 2020).

Interestingly enough, research has demonstrated changes at the level of the brain in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. One study that performed imaging on older adults to assess the brain’s activity while listening to sentences of varying speech rates found that individuals with sensorineural hearing loss experienced changes in brain activity while listening to faster talking rates than slower and simpler talking rates. Additionally, the study discovered reduced grey matter volume in the hearing portion of the brain–the portion responsible for processing information (Peele 2011)! Overall, people with hearing loss should focus on complex tasks because they are more profitable for the brain. In the real world, this equates to increased hearing effort, aka listening fatigue, when placed in those challenging listening environments. THINK: restaurant, large family gatherings, auditoriums, airports, etc.

Another study explored the association between hearing loss and dementia in the general population. They discovered that hearing loss is associated with significant increased risk of dementia, especially in patients aged 45 to 64 years. Their findings suggest that implementing early hearing protection, screenings, and hearing aids may help reduce this potential risk factor for dementia (Liu 2019).




So, what can you do to help yourself or your family members?

  • Schedule a hearing test! It will NEVER hurt to have your hearing evaluated to establish a baseline. If we detect hearing loss, we can discuss options for moving forward. 
  • If you use hearing aids, wear them whenever you are awake. Keeping the brain stimulated, even in quiet situations, is important. The brain needs to hear all sounds to stay sharp and active–this includes the sink running, newspaper rustling, and feet stepping on the floor.
  • Stay up to date on screenings and re-evaluate your hearing every one to two years. Hearing loss can happen gradually, and your brain might not know what it’s missing!
  • If your family member struggles with dementia or Alzheimers, please know many hearing solutions can improve communication. Reach out to us. We can walk through various hearing technologies or accessories that will suit the needs of your loved one.


Since hearing loss is a modifiable age-associated condition linked to dementia, the Lancet International Commission on Dementia, Prevention, Intervention, and Care has estimated that treating hearing loss may decrease the risk of dementia by nine percent. [Practice name] empowers patients and advocates that they treat hearing loss sooner rather than later!


During Alzheimer’s and Brain Awareness Month, we want to shed light on such a prevalent health topic. Experiencing Alzheimer’s, dementia, or any brain injury can be extremely challenging for our patients and their loved ones. At [Insert Practice], we have the patience, compassion, and empathy to walk through these challenges with you. Our goal is to ensure you and your loved ones are heard while helping you hear your best. 




Liu, Chin-Mei, and Charles Tzu-Chi Lee. “Association of hearing loss with dementia.” JAMA network open 2.7 (2019): e198112-e198112.


Peelle, Jonathan E., et al. “Hearing loss in older adults affects neural systems supporting speech comprehension.” Journal of neuroscience 31.35 (2011): 12638-12643.


Slade, Kate, Christopher J. Plack, and Helen E. Nuttall. “The Effects of Age-Related Hearing Loss on the Brain and Cognitive Function.” Trends in Neurosciences (2020).

Uchida, Yasue, et al. “Age-related hearing loss and cognitive decline—The potential mechanisms linking the two.” Auris Nasus Larynx 46.1 (2019): 1-9.

Better Speech & Hearing Month May 2021

Better Hearing & Speech Month at The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic


Hello, Better Hearing and Speech Month! At The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic, I am passionate about educating my patients on the importance of hearing health. One of the simple ways I can do this is by sharing who I am and the types of problems we help our patients solve! Do you know what an audiologist is?


What is an audiologist?


Audiologists are health-care professionals who provide patient-centered care in evaluating, diagnosing, treating, and managing hearing, balance, and auditory disorders for people of all ages. From newborn hearing screenings, to fitting hearing aids, to testing balance, our services are needed across the lifespan.


Where do audiologists work? 


Audiologists work in a variety of settings. Depending on our clinical interest, you can find a lot of my colleagues in any of the places listed below:

  • Hospitals  
  • Private practices 
  • Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinics
  • School settings: Educational audiology (K-12) & Universities
  • Industrial hearing conservation programs
  • Hearing Aid Chains


What services do audiologists provide?


I am trained and equipped to perform a wide variety of services. Listed below are some of the many services an audiologist can perform: 

  • Comprehensive hearing assessments ***
  • Wax removal***
  • Evaluating and providing treatment options for tinnitus (noises in the ears)***
  • Assessing and diagnosing auditory conditions such as: auditory processing disorder, auditory neuropathy, hyperacusis (sensitivity to sound), and misophonia (hatred of specific sounds) 
  • Evaluating vertigo, dizziness, and balance disorders***
  • Selection and fitting of hearing aids***
  • Verification and validation of hearing aids***
  • Candidacy assessment and fitting of implantable devices such as: cochlear implants, bone anchored hearing aids, and middle ear implants

*** These are the services that I provide at The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic.


What training is required to be an audiologist? 


Recently I’ve noticed patients expressing curiosity in my job title, “Audiologist”. In Canada, Audiologist hold a Masters or Doctorate Degree. In the U.S., an audiologist requires a doctoral level degree. This degree is not equivalent to a medical doctor (MD), however an audiologist’s education requires four additional years of education after receiving a bachelors. That’s 8 years of school! After completing my Bachelors at The University of Ottawa, I went to Wayne State for 5 years to complete my Doctorate in Audiology. There is a lot of territory I had to cover in the doctoral program: 


  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Acoustics
  • Diagnostics
  • Clinical practicum
  • Counseling


Audiologists truly never stop learning! As you can imagine, technology continues to evolve, which means audiology does too. Staying up to date on best practice includes being informed on the latest research, testing procedures, and advancements in hearing aid technology.


In addition to graduating from an accredited doctoral program, my colleagues and I must pass a national exam and are required to hold provincial licensure.


Why see an audiologist at The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic?


The comprehensive knowledge and training required to practice clinically speak volumes to the quality of care you will receive. With hundreds of hours in clinical rotations, audiologists are trained to help treat more than just hearing loss. For example, other conditions such as tinnitus are often co-existent with hearing loss. Audiologists are trained in managing this as well. 


In addition, the goal at The Hearing & Dizziness Clinic is always to provide patient centered care that is backed by evidence based practice. The objective is not to sell, but rather to improve an individual’s quality of life. There is a SCIENCE and SKILL that goes into picking the right technology for you or a loved one. When selecting hearing aids, there are many factors to consider. For example:


  • What is your lifestyle?
  • What areas are you hoping to see the most improvement?
  • Should you get one or two? 
  • Do you have trouble hearing in background noise?
  • Do you have tinnitus?
  • Do you have a history of ear surgeries?
  • Have you had success or trouble with a different device before?
  • Do you have vision or dexterity issues?

The list goes on…but the goal is always to help find technology that will help you thrive in your everyday life! For most, hearing is the gateway to communication, social interaction, and living your fullest life.


The latest MarkeTrak survey found that hearing aid owners almost unanimously agree that the hearing care professional they worked with played a critical role in their satisfaction with hearing aids. Hearing aid users reported satisfaction rates of 94% when working with an audiologist (Marketrak 10 results). They also found that patients strongly valued the quality of service during the fitting, professionalism of the audiologist, and the quality of service after the fitting. Additionally, patients reported that receiving realistic expectations and focusing on their individual needs was equally important in their success with hearing aids! 

Our primary goal at [Insert practice name] is to get you as close to 100% satisfaction as possible. [We/I] value creating a relationship with our patients and walking through your journey to hearing better with you. In light of Better Hearing and Speech Month, reach out to us if you would like to know more about how to hear your best. Our goal is to continue educating and empowering all of our patients!


Carr, K. (2020). 20Q: Consumer insights on hearing aids, PSAPs, OTC devices, and more from MarkeTrak 10. AudiologyOnline, Article 26648. Retrieved from www.audiologyonline.com




It’s hard to believe the novel coronavirus began sweeping the nation almost one year ago. In the blink of an eye the entire world was turned upside down. Shelves went bare in grocery stores, businesses closed, jobs were lost, and social distancing became the “new normal”. Many people were forced to find creative solutions to work from home while also caring for their family. All of these factors created the perfect storm for life to feel very heavy and stressful


During the pandemic, about 4 in 10 adults in the U.S. have reported symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorder. This number was previously lower, averaging about 1 in 10 adults who reported the same symptoms in 2019. A recent poll from the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) in July 2020 found that many adults are reporting specific negative impacts on their mental health and well-being, such as difficulty sleeping (36%), increases in alcohol consumption or substance use (12%), and worsening chronic conditions (12%), due to worry and stress over the coronavirus.




Clinically, more patients seem to be reporting an increase in tinnitus (noises in the ears) since the pandemic started. However, this isn’t surprising, considering stress is known to have an effect on tinnitus. With all of the additional burdens and stress people are facing, it’s no coincidence their tinnitus decided to resurface. 


At the present moment, there is no formal data that suggests contracting the coronavirus leads to hearing loss or tinnitus. However, many studies have demonstrated that tinnitus is exacerbated by factors such as stress, lack of sleep, and unhealthy diet. Heavy alcohol consumption or large quantities of caffeine are also thought to negatively impact tinnitus.  Additional daily worries with managing the family, job security, and interpersonal relationships have increased stress and negative feelings. Not to mention anxieties about contracting the virus or spreading it to someone you care about. Throughout the pandemic, it’s safe to say many people have found themselves relating to at least one or several of these factors mentioned.


Many people find coping with tinnitus to be very challenging. There are products sold on the internet that make claims to “get rid of tinnitus”, but many of these supplements are not evidence based or clinically proven to work.  In fact, some of the most important strategies to help manage tinnitus come from retraining your brain and learning to manage stress…which is certainly easier said than done!




So what can be done to help reduce stress? April is Stress Awareness Month, and who doesn’t benefit from strategies to keep our mental and emotional health in tip top shape? Listed below are some ideas suggested by the CDC to help cope with stress:


  • EAT HEALTHY: Nourish the body with wholesome, healthy foods. Avoid large quantities of alcohol or caffeine. 
  • EXERCISE: Spring has sprung (hopefully in your area!), so get outside and move your body. Sunshine and fresh air do wonders for the mind. Exercise boosts energy levels and releases endorphins that can help improve your mood.
  • TAKE A BREAK: Hit pause on those social media platforms that keep you mindlessly scrolling. Give yourself permission to take a break from negative or biased media sources.
  • BE MINDFUL: Practice yoga, stretch, or meditate! Some of these things may not come naturally at first, but practice makes perfect. 
  • UNWIND: Find an activity or hobby you enjoy. Learning a new skill can be a positive, fun outlet.
  • STAY CONNECTED: Check in on family and friends with phone calls, texts, FaceTime, Zoom, etc. Technology is a blessing and a wonderful way to stay connected, especially during times of social distancing.
  • SEEK HELP: Do not be afraid to talk to someone about how you’re feeling. Seek help and guidance from a trained professional if needed.

(CDC 2019)


Let’s kick stress and jump into the spring season feeling refreshed! Implementing simple self-care steps can seem small and insignificant, but truly make a difference. By creating healthy habits we can positively influence our mental and emotional well being.  If you feel burdened by stress or are suffering from tinnitus, please contact our office. Our job is to walk through this with you and help provide solutions to improve your quality of life!




Baigi A, Oden A, Almlid-Larsen V, Barrenas ML, Holgers KM. (2011) Tinnitus in the General Population With a Focus on Noise and Stress – A Public Health Study. Ear & Hearing. 32(6):787-789.


Canlon, B., Theorell, T., & Hasson, D. (2013). Associations between stress and hearing problems in humans. Hearing Research, 295, 9–15.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). Stress and Coping. Accessed on February 24, 2021.

Marshall D. (2020) Taking Care of Your Mental Health in the Face of Uncertainty. Accessed on February 24, 2021.

Nirmita Panchal, Rabah Kamal, and Feb 2021. “The Implications of COVID-19 for Mental Health and Substance Use.” KFF, 10 Feb. 2021, www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/the-implications-of-covid-19-for-mental-health-and-substance-use/. 

Pan T, Tyler R, Ji H, Coelho C, Gogel S. Differences among patients that make their  tinnitus worse or better. Am J Audiol. (2015) 24:469–76. doi: 10.1044/2015_AJA-15-0020

Vindegaard N, Benros M. COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: systematic review of the current evidence. Brain Behav Immun. (2020) 89:531–42. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.048